Policies to Promote Child Health, The Future of Children, Princeton-Brookings, Washington D.C. Spring 2015, edited with Nancy Reichman.

Children with Disabilities, The Future of Children, v 22 #1, Princeton-Brookings, Washington D.C. Spring 2012, edited with Robert Kahn.

The Invisible Safety Net: Protecting the Nation's Poor Children and Families, Princeton University Press, Spring 2006

Welfare and the Well-Being of Children: The Relative Effectiveness of Cash and In-Kind Transfers, Fundamentals of the Pure and Applied Economics #59, Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur Switzerland, 1995.

Journal Articles

“Rules vs. Discretion: Treatment of Mental Illness in U.S. Adolescents,” The Journal of Political Economy, with Emily Cuddy, forthcoming.

“To What Extent are Trends in Teen Mental Health Driven by Changes in Reporting? The Example of Suicide-Related Hospital Visits,” Journal of Human Resources, with Adriana Corredor-Waldron, forthcoming. 

“The Economics of Child Mental Health: Introducing the Volume,” Journal of Human Resources, forthcoming.

“Doing More with Less: Predicting Primary Care Provider Effectiveness,” forthcoming, The Review of Economics and Statistics, with Jonathan Zhang.

“Medication of Postpartum Depression and Maternal Outcomes: Evidence from Geographic Variation in Dutch Prescribing,” The Journal of Human Resources, with Esmée Zwiers.

“Mothers as Insurance: Family Spillovers in WIC,” Journal of Health Economics, with Marianne Bitler, Hilary Hoynes, Krisa Ruffini, Lisa Schulkind, and Barton Willage, September 2023, 102784.

“The COVID-19 baby bump in the United States,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, August 15, 2023, 120:34, e2222075120, with Martha Bailey and Hannes Schwandt.

“The Effects of Legal Representation on Tenant Outcomes in Housing Court: Evidence from New York City's Universal Access Program,” Journal of Public Economics, 222, 104844, June 2023, with Michael Cassidy.

“Do Urgent Care Centers Reduce Medicare Spending?” Journal of Health Economics, 2023 May; 89:102753, doi: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2023.102753, with Anastasia Karpova and Dan Zeltzer.

“The Relationship Between a Caregiver’s New Diagnosis of Severe Depression and Children’s Asthma Controller Medication Compliance,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 29;20(11):5986, May 2023 doi: 10.3390/ijerph20115986, with Michele Mercer, Russ Michael, and Daniel Pichardo.

“What Caused Racial Disparities in Particulate Exposure to Fall? New Evidence from the Clean Air Act and Satellite-Based Measures of Air Quality,” American Economic Review, 113(1): 71–97, January 2023, with Reed Walker and John Voorheis.

“Changes in the Relationship Between Income and Life Expectancy Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic, California, 2015-2021,” JAMA, Published online July 7, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.10952, with Hannes Schwandt, Till von Wachter, Jonathan Kowarski, Derek Chapman, and Steven H. Woolf.

“Violence while in Utero: The Impact of Assaults During Pregnancy on Birth Outcomes,” Review of Economics and Statistics, May 2022, with Maya Rossin-Slater and Michael Mueller-Smith.

“Leveraging the Urgency of Economic Disparities Driven by the COVID-19 Pandemic to Strengthen the U.S. Safety Net,” NAM Perspectives, Feb. 7, 2022, with Marianne Bitler, Rita Hamad, and Krista Ruffini.

“Tackling the Substance Abuse Crisis: The Role of Access to Treatment Facilities,” Journal of Health Economics, January 2022;81:102579, with Adriana Corredor-Waldron.

“Medicaid and CHIP Improve Child Health and Reduce Poverty but Face Threats,” Academic Pediatrics, Nov.-Dec. 2021; 21:S146−S153, with Anna Chorniy.

“Inequality in Mortality between Black and White Americans by Age, Place, andCause, and in Comparison to Europe, 1990-2018,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, October 5, 2021 118 (40) e2104684118, with Hannes Schwandt, Marlies Bär, James Banks, Paola Bertoli, Aline Bütikofer, Sarah Cattan, Beatrice Zong-Ying Chao, Claudia Costa, Libertad González, Veronica Grembi,Kristiina Huttunen,René Karadakic, Lucy Kraftman,Sonya Krutikova, Stefano Lombardi, Peter Redler, Carlos Riumallo-Herl,Ana Rodríguez-González, Kjell Salvanes,Paula Santana, Josselin Thuilliez, Eddy van Doorslaer, Tom Van Ourti, Joachim Winter, Bram Wouterse, Amelie Wuppermann.

“Congestion Pricing, Air Pollution, and Children's Health,” Journal of Human Resources, with  Peter Nilsson, Emilia Simeonova, and Reed Walker, forthcoming Fall, 2021.

“The Opioid Epidemic Was Not Primarily Caused by Economic Distress But by Other Factors that Can be More Readily Addressed,” Annals of Political and Social Science, forthcoming May 2021, with Hannes Schwandt.

"Trends in Drug Overdose Mortality in Ohio During the First 7 Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic", JAMA Network Open, April 14, 2021 4(4): e217112, with Molly Schnell, Hannes Schwandt, and Jonathan Zhang.

“Prescribing of Opioid Analgesics and Buprenorphine for Opioid-Use Disorder During the Pandemic,” JAMA Network Open, April 15, 2021, 4(4): e216147, with Molly Schnell, Hannes Schwandt, and Jonathan Zhang.

"The Evolution of Mortality Inequality in 11 OECD Countries: Introduction" with James Banks, Sonya Krutikova, Kjell Salvanes, and Hannes Schwandt, Fiscal Studies, 42 #1, March 2021.

“Geographic Inequality in Income and Mortality in Germany,” with Peter Redler, Hannes Schwandt, Joachim Winter, and Amelie Wupperman, Fiscal Studies, 42 #1, March 2021.

"Mortality Inequality: Updated Estimates for the United States, Canada and France" with Michael Baker, Boriana Miloucheva, Hannes Schwandt, and Josselin Thuilliez, Fiscal Studies, 42 #1, March 2021.

"What We Say And What We Do: Why US Investments In Children’s Health Are Falling Short" Health Affairs, October 5, 2020, 39 #10, 1684-1692.

“Treatment of Mental Illness in American Adolescents Varies Widely Within and Across Areas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Sept. 21, 2020, 117 (39) 24039-24046 with Emily Cuddy.

"Understanding Doctor Decision Making: The Case of Depression Treatment," Econometrica, v. 88 #3, May 2020, 847-878, with Bentley MacLeod.

“Technology and Big Data Are Changing Economics: Mining Text to Track Methods,” American Economic Association’s Papers and Proceedings, v.100 #2, May 2020, with Henrik Kleven, and Esmée Zwiers.

“Can Mentoring Help Female Assistant Professors in Economics? An Evaluation by Randomized Trial,” American Economic Association’s Papers and Proceedings, v. 100 #2, May 2020, 348-52, with Donna K. Ginther, Francine D. Blau, and Rachel T.A. Croson.

“Does Prenatal WIC Participation Improve Child Outcomes?"  American Journal of Health Economics, v. 6 #2, spring 2020, 169-198, with Anna Chorniy and Lyudmyla Sonchak.

"Child health as human capital", Health Economics, 29: 452-463, 2020, Janet Currie.

“Pauvreté, Egalité, Mortalité: Mortality (In)Equality in France and the U.S.,” Journal of Population Economics, 33 #1, January 2020, 197-231, with Hannes Schwandt and Josselin Thuilliez.

"Check up before you check out: Retail clinics and emergency room use." Journal of Public Economics, 178, 2019, with Diane Alexander and Molly Schnell.

“The Effect of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Cigarette Use and Birth Outcomes among Pregnant Teenagers,” Journal of Health Economics, July 2019, 66, 71-90, with Michel Pesko.

“The Local Economic and Welfare Consequences of Hydraulic Fracturing,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11 #4, October 2019, 105-155, with Alexander Bartik, Michael Greenstone, Christopher Knittel.

“What Do Economists Have to Say About the Clean Air Act 50 Years After the Establishment of the EPA?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 33 #4, Fall 2019, 3-26, with Reed Walker.

“Congestion Pricing, Air Pollution, and Children's Health,” Journal of Human Resources, with Peter Nilsson, Emilia Simeonova, and Reed Walker, Fall 2019.

“Medicaid: What Does it Do and Can We Do it Better?” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, November 2019, 148-179, with Valentina Duque.

“Mortality Inequality in Canada and the U.S.: Convergent or Divergent Trends,” Journal of Labor Economics, 37 #52, July 2019, 5325-5353, with Michael Baker and Hannes Schwandt.

“Lead and Juvenile Delinquency: New Evidence from Linked Birth, School, and Juvenile Detention Records,” forthcoming, The Review of Economics and Statistics, with Anna Aizer.

“U.S. Employment and Opioids: Is There a Connection?” in Research in Labor Economics, 46, 2018, with Jonas Jin and Molly Schnell.

“Childhood Circumstances and Adult Outcomes: Act II,” the Journal of Economic Literature, Dec. 2018, 56 #4, Dec. 2018, 1360-1446with Douglas Almond and Valentina Duque.

“Exploding Asthma and ADHD Caseloads: The Role of Medicaid Managed Care,” with Anna Chorniy and Lyudmyla Sonchak, Journal of Health Economics, v60, July 2018, 1-15 (lead article).

Addressing The Opioid Epidemic: Is There A Role For Physician Education? American Journal of Health Economics, 4 #3, Summer 2018, 383-410, with Molly Schnell. NIHMSID 972141.

“Do Low Levels of Blood Lead Reduce Children’s Future Test Scores,”  American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10 #1, January 2018, p.307-41, with Anna Aizer, Peter Simon, Patrick Vivier.

“Kids’ HELP (Kids’ Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents): A Cost-Effective Parent Mentor Intervention That Eliminates Insurance Disparities and Improves Healthcare Outcomes for Latino Children,” Health Affairs, v37 #3, 2018l 1-10, with Glenn Flores, Hua Lin, Candy Walker, Michael Lee, Rick Allgeyer, Marco Fierro, Monica Henry, Alberto Portillo, Kenneth Massey.

"Inequality in Mortality Over the Life Course: Why Things Are Not as Bad as You Think," Contemporary Economics Policy, 36 #1, January 2018, 7-23.

“Hydraulic Fracturing and Infant Health: New Evidence from Pennsylvania,” Science Advances, Dec. 13, 2017, 3 #12, e1603021, with Katherine Meckel and Michael Greenstone.

“Is It Who You Are or Where You Live? Residential Segregation and Racial Gaps in Childhood Asthma,” Journal of Health Economics, 55, September 2017, 186-200, with Diane Alexander.

“Are Publicly Insured Children Less Likely to be Admitted to Hospital than the Privately Insured (and Does it Matter)?” Economics and Human Biology, 25, 2017, 33-51 with Diane Alexander.

“Diagnosing Expertise: Human Capital, Decision Making and Performance Among Physicians,” Journal of Labor Economics, 35 #1, 2017, 1-43, with W. Bentley MacLeod.

"The 9/11 Dust Cloud and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Reconsideration," Journal of Human Resources, 51 #4, Fall 2016, 805-831, with Hannes Schwandt.

“Mortality Inequality: The Good News from a County-Level Approach,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30 #2, Spring 2016, 29-52, with Hannes Schwandt.

"Provider practice and patient health outcomes: The case of heart attacks," Journal of Health Economics, May 2016, with W. Bentley MacLeod and Jessica Van Parys.

"Inequality in mortality decreased among the young while increasing for older adults, 1900-2010" Science, 352 #6286, April 2016, 708-712, with Hannes Schwandt.

“How Can We Reduce Child Poverty and Support Parental Employment?” Academic Pediatrics, 16 #3, April 2016, s13-s15.

"Beyond Ebola,"Science, February 2016, with Bryan Grenfell and Jeremy Farrar.

"Environmental Health Risks and Housing Values: Evidence from 1,600 Toxic Plant Openings and Closings", American Economic Review, Vol. 105 #2, February 2015, with Lucas Davis, Michael Greenstone, and Reed Walker.

"Is there a Link Between Foreclosure and Health?,"American Economics Journals: Economic Policy, Vol. 7 #1, February 2015, with Erdal Tekin.

“The Great Recession and Mother’s Health,” September 2014, with Valentina Duque and Irwin Garfinkel.

“Addressing Antibiotic Abuse in China: An Experimental Audit Study,” Journal of Development Economics, September 2014, with Wanchuan Lin and JuanJuan Meng.

"Short- and Long-term Effects of Unemployment on Fertility," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), September 2014, Vol. 111 # 41, with Hannes Schwandt.

"The Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality: Maternal Disadvantage and Health at Birth," Science, v344, May 23, 2014, p. 856, with Anna Aizer.

"Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycles Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications", Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol.00 #00, 2014, with Maya Rossin-Slater

"Do Stimulant Medications Improve Educational and Behavioral Outcomes for Children with ADHD?," Journal of Health Economics, May 2014, with Mark Stabile and Laren Jones

"What Do We Know About Short-and Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Exposure to Pollution?," Annual Review of Resource Economics, March 2014, with Josh Graff Zivin, Jamie Mullins, and Matthew Neidell.

“Within-Mother Estimates of the Effects of WIC on Birth Outcomes in New York City,” with Ishita Rajani, March 2014.

“Pollution and Infant Health,” Child Development Perspectives, v 7:4, December 2013.

“Savage Tables and Tort Law: An Alternative to the Precaution Model,” The University of Chicago Law Review, v. 81, 2014, with W. Bentley MacLeod.

"Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison," PLOS Medicine, October 2013, with David S. Ludwig and Heather L. Rouse.

"Early-life health and adult circumstance in developing countries," Annual Review of Economics, v.5:7.1-7.36, September 2013, with Tom Vogl.

“Something in the water: contaminated drinking water and infant health,” Canadian Journal of Economics, Aug. 2013, Vol. 46 #3: 791-810, with Joshua Graff Zivin, Katherine Meckel, Matthew Neidell, and Wolfram Schlenker.

"'Big Data' versus 'Big Brother': On the appropriate use of large-scale data collections in pediatrics," Pediatrics, April 2013, Vol. 131.

"Within-mother analysis of seasonal patterns in health at birth," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 2013, Vol. 110 #28 with Hannes Schwandt.

"Weathering the storm: Hurricanes and birth outcomes," Journal of Health Economics, Feb. 2013, #32 487-503, with Maya Rossin-Slater.

“Social Networks and Externalities from Gift Exchange: Evidence from a Field Experiment,” Journal of Public Economics, November 2012, with Wanchuan Lin and Juanjuan Meng.

“The Great Recession, Public Transfers, and Material Hardship,” Social Service Review, Feb. 2012, with Natasha Pilkauskas and Irwin Garfinkel.

“From Infant to Mother: Early Disease Environment and Future Maternal Health,” Labour Economics, 2012, Vol. 19 #4, with Douglas Almond and Mariesa Herrmann.

“Accidental Death and the Rule of Joint and Several Liability,” the RAND Journal of Economics, Sept. 2011, with Daniel Carvell and W. Bentley MacLeod.

“Understanding the Cycle: Childhood Maltreatment and Future Crime?" the Journal of Human Resources, Spring 2012, 47 #2: 509-549, with Erdal Tekin.

“Quasi-Experimental Approaches to Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Children’s Health,” Health Affairs, Dec. 2011, 30 #12:2391-9, with Samantha Heep and Matthew Neidell.  Pubmed: 22147868.

Patient Knowledge and Antibiotic Abuse: Evidence from an Audit Study in China,” Journal of Health Economics, July 5, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.05.009, with Wanchuan Lin and Wei Zhang.

“Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis,” forthcoming, the Journal of Economic Perspectives, with Douglas Almond.

"Inequality at Birth: Some Causes and Consequences," American Economic Review, Ely lecture, May 2011.

“Ungleichheiten bei der Geburt: Einige Ursachen and Folgen,” in Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, forthcoming 2011.

"Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health," American Economic Review, May 2011, with Michael Greenstone and Enrico Moretti.

“Public vs. Private Provision of Charity Care? Evidence from the Expiration of Hill-Burton Requirements in Florida," Journal of Health Economics, 2011, Vol. 30, Issue 1, 189-199, with Douglas Almond and Emilia Simeonova.

“Traffic Congestion and Infant Health: Evidence from E-ZPass," American Economic Journals-Applied, January 2011, #3: 65–90, with Reed Walker.

“The Association Between Pregnancy Weight Gain and Birthweight: A Within-Family Comparison,” The Lancet, August 5, 2010, DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60751-9, with David Ludwig.

“The Effect of Fast Food Restaurants on Obesity and Weight Gain,” American Economic Journals: Economic Policy, August 2010, v2 #3, with Stephano Della Vigna, Enrico Moretti, and Vikram Pathania, 32-63.

“Can Mentoring Help Female Assistant Professors? Interim Results from a Randomized Trial,” American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings, May 2010, with Francine Blau, Rachel Croson, and Donna Ginther.

“Child Health and Young Adult Outcomes,“ Journal of Human Resources, 45 #3, Summer 2010, 517-548, with Mark Stabile, Phongsack Manivong, Leslie L. Roos.

"Long-term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Well-Being," Child Maltreatment, 15 #2, May 2010, 111-120, with Cathy Spatz Widom (PMID:  20425881).  Winner of the “Best Paper Award for 2010" in Child Maltreatment.

“Does Pollution Affect School Absenteeism?” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Nov. 2009,  91 #4: 682–694, with Eric Hanushek, E. Megan Kahn, Matthew Neidell, and Steve Rivkin.

"Policy Interventions to Address Health Disparities: Moving Beyond Health Insurance," Pediatrics, v124, Nov. 2009, S246-254 (PMID: 19861476).

"Fetal Exposure to Toxic Releases and Infant Health," American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings, 99(2), May 2009, 177-83, with Johannes F. Schmieder.

"Air Pollution and Infant Health: Lessons from New Jersey," Journal of Health Economics, 28 #3, May 2009, 688-703, with Matthew Neidell and Johannes Schmeider. (PMID: 19328569)

"Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise? Socioeconomic Status, Poor Health in Childhood, and Human Capital Devleopment," Journal of Economic Literature, 47 #1, March 2009, 87-122.

"Has Public Health Insurance for Older Children Reduced Disparities in Access to Care and Health Outcomes?" Journal of Health Economics, 27 #6, Dec. 2008, 1407-1652, with Sandra Decker and Wanchuan Lin.

"Transfers in Cash and In-Kind: Theory Meets the Data," Journal of Economic Literature, 46 #2, June 2008, 333-83, with Firouz Gahvari.

"First Do No Harm? Tort Reform and Birth Outcomes," Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXXIII #2, May 2008, with Bentley MacLeod, 795-830. Finalist for NIHCM Foundation's 15th Annual Health Care Research Award. Law data posted at:

"Does Managed Care Hurt Health?: Evidence from Medicaid Mothers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89 #3, August 2007, 385-399, with Anna Aizer and Enrico Moretti.

"Biology as Destiny? Short and Long-Run Determinants of Intergenerational Transmission of Birth Weight," The Journal of Labor Economics, 25 #2, April 2007, 231-264, with Enrico Moretti.

"Chipping Away at Health: More on the Relationship Between Income and Child Health," Health Affairs, 26 #2, Mar/Apr 2007, 331-344, with Wanchuan Lin.

"Getting Inside the 'Black Box' of Head Start Quality: What Matters and What Doesn't," Economics of Education Review, 26 #1, February 2007, 83-99, with Matthew Neidell.

"Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD," Journal of Health Economics, 25 #6, Nov. 2006, 1094-1118, with Mark Stabile.

"Breakfast of Champions? The Effects of the School Breakfast Program on the Nutrition of Children and their Families," Journal of Human Resources Volume 41 Number 3, Summer 2006, 445-466, with Jayanta Bhattacharya and Steven Haider.

"Air Pollution and Infant Health: What Can We Learn From California's Recent Experience?" Quarterly Journal of Economics v. CXX#3, August 2005, 1003-1030, with Matthew Neidell.

"Cut to the Bone?: Hospital Takeovers and Employment Contracts," the Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 58 #3, April 2005, 471-494, with Mehdi Farsi and Bentley MacLeod.

"Medicaid Managed Care: Effects on Children's Medicaid Coverage and Utilization of Care," Journal of Public Economics, 89 #1, Jan. 2005, 85-108, with John Fahr.

"Networks or Neighborhoods? Correlations in the Use of Publicly-Funded Maternity Care in California"Journal of Public Economics, 88 #12, Dec. 2004, 2573-2585, with Anna Aizer.

"Does WIC Work? The Effect of WIC on Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23 #4, Fall 2004, 73-91, with Marianne Bitler.

"Child Research Comes of Age," Canadian Journal of Economics, 37 #3, August, 2004, 509-527.

"Poverty, Food Insecurity, and Nutritional Outcomes in Children and Adults," Journal of Health Economics, 23 #2, July 2004, 839-862, with Jayanta Bhattacharya and Steven Haider.

"Hospitals, Managed Care, and the Charity Caseload in California," Journal of Health Economics, 23 #3, May 2004, 421-625, with John Fahr.

"Accidents Will Happen? Unintentional Injury, Maternal Employment, and Child Care Policy," Journal of Health Economics, v23 #1, January 2004, 25-59 with V. Joseph Hotz.

"Socioeconomic Status and Child Health: Why is the Relationship Stronger for Older Children?," American Economic Review, v93 #5, December 2003, 1813-1823, with Mark Stabile.

"Mother's Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital: Evidence from College Openings," Quarterly Journal of Economics, VCXVIII #4, Nov. 2003, with Enrico Moretti, 1495-1532.

"WIC Eligibility and Participation," Journal of Human Resources, v38, 2003, 1139-1179, with Marianne Bitler and John Karl Scholz.

"Heat or Eat? Income Shocks and the Allocation of Nutrition in American Families," American Journal of Public Health 93(7), July 2003,1149-1154, with Jayanta Bhattacharya, Thomas DeLeire, and Steven Haider.

"Distance to Hospital and Children's Access to Care: Is Being Closer Better, and for Whom?," Economic Inquiry, v 41 #3, July 2003, 378-391, with Patricia Reagan.

"Longer Term Effects of Head Start," The American Economic Review, v92 #4, Sept. 2002, 999-1012, with Eliana Garces and Duncan Thomas.

"Medicaid Expansions and Welfare Contractions: Offsetting Effects on Prenatal Care and Infant Health," Journal of Health Economics, v21 March 2002, 313-335, with Jeffrey Grogger.

"Public Health Insurance and Medical Treatment: The Equalizing Impact of the Medicaid Expansions," Journal of Public Economics, v82 #1, October 2001, 63-90, with Jonathan Gruber.

"Early Test Scores, School Quality and Socioeconomic Status: Long Run Effects on Wage and Employment Outcomes," in Research in Labor Economics: Worker Wellbeing in a Changing Labor Market, v 20, 2001, 103-132, with Duncan Thomas.

"Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Do We Know?," Journal of Economic Perspectives,15 #2, Spring 2001, 213-238, reprinted in Health and Inequality (Major Themes In Health and Social Welfare), edited by Kate E Pickett and Richard G Wilkinson (Routledge, 2008).

"School Quality and the Longer-Term Effects of Head Start," Journal of Human Resources, fall 2000, v35 #4, 755-774, with Duncan Thomas.

"Are Public Housing Projects Good For Kids?," Journal of Public Economics, v75 #1, January 2000, 99-124, with Aaron Yelowitz. Data and programs available at:

"The Law and Labor Strife in the U.S., 1881-1894," Journal of Economic History, 60 #1, March 2000, 42-66, with Joseph Ferrie.

"Does Head Start Help Hispanic Children?," Journal of Public Economics, 74 #2, November, 1999, 235-262, with Duncan Thomas.

"The Intergenerational Transmission of "Intelligence": Down the Slippery Slopes of 'The Bell Curve'," Industrial Relations, 38 #3, July 1999, 297-330, with Duncan Thomas.

"Is the Impact of Health Shocks Cushioned by Socioeconomic Status?: The Case of Birth Low Weight," American Economic Review, May 1999, 89 #2, 245-250, with Rosemary Hyson.

"Sharing the Costs: The Impact of Trade Reform on Capital and Labor in Morocco," Journal of Labor Economics, July 1997, 15 #3, S44-S71, with Ann Harrison.

"Saving Babies: The Efficacy and Cost of Recent Expansions of Medicaid Eligibility for Pregnant Women," The Journal of Political Economy, December, 1996, 104 #6, 1263-1296, with Jonathan Gruber. Reprinted in A Health Law Reader, John Robinson, Roberta Berry, and Kevin McDonnell (eds) (Carolina Academic Press: Durham NC), 1999.

"Health Insurance Eligibility, Utilization of Medical Care, and Child Health," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 1996, 111 #2, 431-466, with Jonathan Gruber.

"The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Youth: Evidence from the NLSY," The Journal of Human Resources, Spring 1996, 31 #2, 404-428, with Bruce Fallick.

"Restrictions on Medicaid Funding of Abortion: Effects on Pregnancy Resolutions and Birth Weight," The Journal of Human Resources, Winter 1996, 31 #1, 159-188, with Lucia Nixon and Nancy Cole.

"Does Head Start Make A Difference?," The American Economic Review, June 1995, 85 #3, 341-364, with Duncan Thomas.

"Socioeconomic Status and Health: Does Universal Eligibility for Health Care Reduce the Gaps?," The Scandanavian Journal of Economics, 97 #4, 1995, 603-620, Reprinted in The Future of the Welfare State, London: Basil Blackwell, 1996.

"Male Jobs, Female Jobs, and Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage in Canada," Research in Labor Economics, Summer, v14, 1995, 171-210, with Richard Chaykowski.

"Physician Payments and Infant Mortality: Evidence from Medicaid Fee Policy," The American Economic Review, May 1995, 85 #2, 106-111, with Jonathan Gruber and Michael Fischer.

"Medical Care for Children: Public Insurance, Private Insurance, and Racial Differences in Utilization," The Journal of Human Resources, Winter, 1995, 30 #1, 135-162, with Duncan Thomas. Reprinted in Portuguese in Revista Brasileira de Economia, 49 #2, April-June, 1995.

"The Impact of Collective Bargaining Legislation in the U.S. Public Sector: No Policy May be the Worst Policy?," The Journal of Law and Economics, 37 #2, October 1994, 519-547, with Sheena McConnell.

"Understanding When Agents are Fairmen or Gamesmen," Games and Economic Behavior, 7 #1, July 1994, 104-115, with Matthew Spiegel, Hugo Sonnenschein, and Arunava Sen.

"Arbitrator Behavior and the Characteristics of Arbitrated and Negotiated Wage Settlements," Journal of Labor Economics, January 1994, 12 #1, 29-40.

"Welfare and Child Health: The Link Between AFDC Participation and Birth Weight," The American Economic Review, September, 1993, 83 #4, 971-985, with Nancy Cole.

"An Experimental Comparison of Dispute Rates in Alternative Arbitration Systems," Econometrica, Nov. 1992, 60 #6, 1407-1433, with Orley Ashenfelter, Henry Farber, and Matthew Spiegel.

"Firm-Specific Determinants of the Real Wage," The Review of Economics and Statistics, May 1992, 74 #2, 297-304, with Sheena McConnell.

"Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector: The Effect of Legal Structure on Dispute Costs and Wages," The American Economic Review, September 1991, 81 #4, 693-718, with Sheena McConnell. Reprinted in Labor Economics, Orley Ashenfelter and Kevin Hallock (ed.) (Aldershot, Hants, England ; Brookfield, Vt., USA : E. Elgar Pub)1996. Series title: International library of critical writings in economics; 47.

"Employment Determination in a Unionized Public Sector Labor Market: The Case of Ontario's School Teachers," Journal of Labor Economics, January 1991, 9 #1, 45-66.

"Negotiator Behavior and the Occurrence of Disputes," The American Economic Review, May 1990, 80 #2, 416-420, with Orley Ashenfelter.

"Who Uses Interest Arbitration? The Case of British Columbia's Teachers: 1947-1981," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, April 1989, 42 #3, 363-379.

"A Further Test of Noncooperative Bargaining Theory," The American Economic Review, Sept. 1988, 78 #4, 824-836, with Hugo Sonnenschein and Matthew Spiegel (published under the name Janet Neelin).

"Sectoral Shifts and Canadian Unemployment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Nov. 1987 69 #4, 718-723, published under the name Janet Neelin).

Book Chapters


“Mother’s and Father’s Health,” in Children of the Great Recession, Irwin Garfinkel and Sara McLanahan (eds.), Russell Sage, 2015, with Valentina Duque.

“The Fetal Origins of Lifetime Health,” in Encyclopedia of Health Economics, Anthony Culyer (ed) (Amsterdam: Elsevier), 2013, with Douglas Almond and Katherine Meckel.

“Socioeconomic Status, Child Health and Future Outcomes: Lessons for Appalachia,” in
Appalachian Legacy:  Economic Opportunity after the War on Poverty, James Ziliak (ed), (Washington: Brookings Institution Press), 2012.

“Anti-Poverty Programs for Poor Children and Families,” in Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty, Philip Jefferson (ed). (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2012.

“Human Capital Development before Age Five,” Handbook of Labor Economics, David Card and Orley Ashenfelter (eds.), with Douglas Almond, 2011.

"Health and Residential Location," in Reinventing Older Communities: Why Does Place Matter?, Susan Wachter and Harriet Weinberger (eds). (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), 2011.

"Parental SES and Child Health," in International Encyclopedia of Education, 3rd ed., Penelope Peterson, Eva Baker, Barry McGaw (eds) (Amsterdam: Elsevier) with Joshua Goodman, 2010, v. 2, 253-259, with Joshua Goodman.  Reprinted in: Brewer, D. J. And McEwan, P. J., ed. (2010). Economics of Education (Amsterdam: Elsevier).

"Mental Health in Childhood and Human Capital," An Economic Perspective on the Problems of Disadvantaged Youth, Jonathan Gruber (ed.) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER), with Mark Stabile, 2009.

"Poverty Among Inner City Children," in Robert Inman (ed.) Making Cities Work: Prospects and Policies for Urban America, (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 2009.

"Did the Introduction of Food Stamps Birth Outcomes in California?," in Making Americans Healthier: Social and Economic Policy as Health Policy, R.F Schoeni, J House, G Kaplan, and H Pollack (eds.) (New York: Russell Sage) with Enrico Moretti, 2008.

"Child Health and Mortality," in Larry Blume and Steven Durlauf (eds.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition," (London: Macmillan), 2008.

"Nutrition and Public Policy in Advanced Economies," in Larry Blume and Steven Durlauf (eds). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition, (London: Macmillan), 2008.

"The Take-up of Social Benefits," in Alan Auerbach, David Card, and John Quigley (eds). Poverty, the Distribution of Income, and Public Policy, (New York: Russell Sage) 2006,  80-148.

"Who's Minding the Kids?: Preschool, Day Care, and After School Care," The Handbook of Education Economics, Finis Welch and Eric Hanushek (eds). New York: North Holland, with David Blau, 2006, v.2 1163-1278.

"Health Disparities and Gaps in School Readiness," in The Future of Children: School Readiness: Closing Racial and Ethnic Gaps, Volume 15, Number 1 - Spring 2005, 117-138.

"Inequality in Life and Death: What Drives Racial Trends in U.S. Child Death Rates?," in Social Inequality (New York: Russell Sage), 2004, 569-632, with V. Joseph Hotz.

"U.S. Food and Nutrition Programs," Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Robert Moffitt (ed.) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER), 2003, 199-290.

"Explaining Recent Declines in Food Stamp Program Participation," in Brookings Papers on Urban Affairs, William Gale and Janet Rothenberg-Pack (eds), 2001, 203-244, with Jeffrey Grogger.

"Youths at Nutritional Risk: Malnourished or Misnourished?," in Risky Behavior Among Youths: An Economic Analysis, Jonathan Gruber (ed) (Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER), 2001, 483-522, with Jay Bhattacharya.

"Health Insurance and Less Skilled Workers," in Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform, David Card and Rebecca Blank (eds.), New York: Russell Sage, 233-261, with Aaron Yelowitz, 2000.

"Child Health in Developed Countries," The Handbook of Health Economics, Joseph P. Newhouse and Anthony J. Culyer (eds.), Amsterdam: North Holland, 2000, 1053-1084.

"Do Children of Immigrants Make Differential Use of Public Health Insurance?," Issues in the Economics of Immigration, George Borjas (ed.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press for NBER, 2000, 271-308.

"Health, Health Insurance and the Labor Market," The Handbook of Labor Economics, volume 3c, David Card and Orley Ashenfelter (eds.), Amsterdam: North Holland, 1999, 3309-3407, with Brigitte Madrian.

"The Effect of Welfare on Child Outcomes: What We Know and What We Need to Know," in Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior: Research Perspectives, Robert Moffitt (ed.), Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1998, 177-204.

"Choosing Among Alternative Programs for Poor Children," The Future of Children, Eugene Lewit and Linda Baker (eds.), The Center for the Future of Children: Los Altos CA, Summer/Fall 1997, 113-131.

"Gender Gaps in Benefits Coverage," in The Handbook of Human Resource Management, David Lewin, Daniel Mitchell and Mahmood Zaidi (eds), JAI Press, 1997, 175-198.

"Welfare and the Well-Being of Children: The Relative Effectiveness of Cash vs. In-Kind Transfers," in Tax Policy and the Economy, James Poterba (ed.), National Bureau of Economic Research and MIT Press, 1994, 1-44.

"Is Arbitration Addictive?: Evidence from the Laboratory and the Field," Industrial Relations Research Association, Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting Jan. 1992, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1992, with Henry Farber.

"From School to Work: The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Time to First Job," Industrial Relations Research Association, Proceedings of the 42 Annual Meeting Dec. 1989, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990, 576-584, with Bruce Fallick.

"Travel Expenditures in Thailand 1975-76," "Travel Expenditures in Hong Kong, 1980," Travel Expenditures in Sri Lanka, 1980-81," chapters 7, 8, and 9 in "The Demand for Personal Travel in Developing Countries", Angus Deaton (ed.) with Nikhilesh Bhattacharya, and Duncan Thomas,  Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington D.C., January 1985.

Selected Policy Notes and Briefings


"Inequality before Birth Contributes to Health Inequality in Adults: Improving newborn health is more essential now than ever," Sciencetific America, October 2020, v323 #4, 50-58.

"Evaluating Data Types: A Guide for Decision Makers Using Data to Understand the Extent and Spread of Covid-19," National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evaluating Data Types: A Guide for Decision Makers using Data to Understand the Extent and Spread of COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 

"Letter to the Editor: Medical School Ranking and Physician Opioid Prescribing," J Gen Intern Med, 35, 2477, May 29, 2020.

"Harnessing Big Data to Improve Children's Mental Health Treatment," NOMIS Spark: Catalysts Insight, November. 2019.

"Who Will Be Our Moral Conscience Now? A Tribute To Uwe Reinhardt," Health Affairs Blog, with Katherine Ho, B.Rose Kelly, and Ilyana Kuziemko, August 8, 2019.

"When Social Policy Saves Lives: Analyzing Trends in Mortality Inequality in the United States and France," July 18, 2018,, with Hannes Schwandt and Josselin Thuilliez.

 “Congestion Charges and Children’s Health,”, July 8, 2018, with Emilia Simeonova, Peter Nilsson, and Reed Walker.

"Health Benefits of Congestion Pricing," NBER Bulletin on Aging and Health, 2018 #2.

Comments on: “Safety Net Investments in Children,” by Hilary Hoynes and Diane Schanzenbach, Brookings Papers on Economic Activities, 2018.

“Medicaid and the Rise of Common Childhood Conditions,”, Nov. 24, 2017 with Anna Chorniy and Lyudmila Sonchak.

“The Kids Are All Right: Good News from the Dismal Science about our Children,” Harvard International Review, Winter 2017, Vol. XXXVIII S1.

“The Program on Children,” NBER Reporter, December 2016, with Anna Aizer.

“The long-term consequences of children’s health and circumstance," Focus, Institute for Research on Poverty, Vol. 33, No. 1, Fall/Winter 2016–17.

“Fixing Flaking Lead Paint at Home Does as Much for School Achievement as Cutting Class Sizes,” Child and Family Blog, March 16, 2015

“Obamacare and long-term U.S. economic competitiveness,” March 2, 2015,

“Can States Improve Children’s Health by Preventing Abuse and Neglect?” with Ron Haskins and Lawrence M. Berger, The Future of Children Policy Brief, Feb. 2015.

“Evidence-based policies that improve early-life health and wellbeing” Andy Feldman’s Gov Innovator blog, Feb. 8, 2015,

“Ritalin May be Sabotaging Your Kids,” Bloomberg View, July 3, 2014.

“ObamaCare and the Value of Happiness,” Bloomberg View, May 4, 2014.

“To Fight Inequality, Give Kids a Chance,” Bloomberg View, Jan. 29, 2014.

“Interview with Janet Currie,” The Region,

“Lasting Effects of Childhood Health in Developing Countries,” Vox EU, Nov. 15, 2012, with Tom Vogl.

“The Economics of Child Health: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth,” presentation on behalf of the American Economic Association/Consortium of Social Science Assocations at the Congressional Reception and Science Exhibition Celebrating 50 Years of Research Progress at the NICHD.  July 12, 2012.

“Poor Childhood Health Can Affect Adult Socioeconomic Outcomes,” Canadian Labor Studies Research Network (CLSRN) Labor Market Matters, Fall 2010.

The Long-Term Impact of Life Before Birth,” Vox, June 24, 2010, with Douglas Almond.

"Socioeconomic Status, Child Health and Future Outcomes: Lessons for Appalachia," University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper 2009-10, Dec. 2009.

"Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise," NBER Digest, Jan. 2009.

Do Fast Food Restaurants Contribute to Obesity?” NBER Bulletin on Aging and Health, Spring 2009, with Stefano DellaVigna, Enrico Moretti, and Vickram Pathania.

"Child Health and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital," Vox, July 19, 2008.

"Efficient Provision of High Quality Early Childhood Education: Does the Private Sector or Public Sector Do it Best?" CESifo DICE Report, 6(2) 2008, with David Blau.

"Why In-Kind Benefits?" Vox, Dec. 17, 2007, with Firouz Gahvari.

"The Federal Safety Net: Effective But Vulnerable Programs," Focus on Law Studies, American Bar Association, Fall 2007.

"Consequences of Childhood Mental Health Disorders," NBER Bulletin on Aging and Health, Summer 2007, with Mark Stabile.

"Stop Picking Holes in America's Social Safety Net," The Financial Times, July 12, 2007.

“How Should We Interpret the Evidence About Head Start?,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, v26 #3, Summer 2007, 681-684.

"Economic Impact of Head Start", in Richard Tremblay, R.G. Barr, R. DeV. Peters (eds.) Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development, Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development, 2005: 1-7. In French.

"Cutting the Safety Net, One Strand at a Time," in The Economist's Voice, V2, Issue 2, 2005, article 5. Reprinted in: Joseph Stiglitz, Aaron Edlin, and J.Bradford DeLong, The Economists' Voice: Top Economists Take On Today's Problems, Columbia University Press, 2008.

"When Do We Know What We Think We Know? Determining Causality," invited paper presented to NICHD Administration for Children and Families conference on Work, Family, Health and Well-Being, Washington D.C. June 16-18, 2003, in Suzanne Bianchi and Lynn Casper (eds.) Work, Family, Health and Well-Being (Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates Inc.) 2005.

"Combining Early Care and Education: Is Universal Pre-K the Best Way?" Social Policy Report: A Publication of the Society for Research in Child Development, v. XVIII #2, 2004.

"Evaluating the Impact of School Nutrition Programs," Final Report to the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service Project #43-3AEM-1-80071, with Jayanta Bhattacharya and Steven Haider, Spring 2004.

"The Impact of Outreach on Medi-Cal Enrollment and Child Health: Lessons from California," final report prepared for California Policy Research Center, University of California, California Program on Access to Care, Sept. 30, 2002, with Anna Aizer.

"Longer Term Effects of Head Start," Joint Center for Research on Poverty Policy Brief, April 2002.

"Balancing Accessibility and Safety in Child Care through Regulations," Joint Center for Research on Poverty Policy Brief, March 2002.

"Favorable Long-Term Effects of Head Start," NBER Digest, August 2001.

"Child Care Regulations Yield Mixed Results," NBER Digest, June 2001.

"What Can We Learn about Child Care Policy from Public Investments in Children's Health?," U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Conference, May 3, 2001.

"A Fresh Start for Head Start," The Brookings Institutions Children's Roundtable, March 2001.

"What We Know About Early Childhood Interventions," Poverty Research News, University of Chicago/Northwestern Joint Center for Research on Poverty, July-August, 2000.

Congressional Briefing on Early Childhood Intervention, May 10, 2000.

"Can Early Childhood Education Lead to Long Term Gains in Cognition?," in Policy Options, July/August 1997, with Duncan Thomas.

"Can Head Start lead to Long Term Gains in Cognition After All?" in Society of Research in Child Development Newsletter, Spring 1997, with Duncan Thomas.

"Does Head Start Help Hispanic Children," Focus, 19 #1, Madison WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, Summer/Fall 1997.

"Medicaid Use by Children of Immigrants," Focus, 18 #2, Madison WI: Institute for Research on Poverty, Fall/Winter 1996-97.

"Welfare and the Well-Being of Children," NBER Reporter, Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, Spring 1996.



Commentary: Does the Long Arm of the Family Have Legs?, International Journal of Epidemiology, April 6, 2009.

The Health Care Mess: How We Got Into It and What it Will Take to Get Out, by Julius Richmond and Rashi Fein, Journal of Economic Literature, September 2006.

Investing in Our Children: What we Know and Don't Know about the Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions, by Lynn Karoly et al., Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law, Spring 1999.

Saving Our Children From Poverty: What the United States Can Learn From France, by Barbara Bergmann, Journal of Economic Literature, 1997.

Parents' Jobs and Children's Lives, by Toby Parcel and Elizabeth Menaghan, American Journal of Sociology, May 1995.

Labor Markets Under Trade Unionism, by John Pencavel, Journal of Economic Literature, September, 1992.

When Public Sector Workers Unionize, by Richard Freeman and Casey Ichniowski, Journal of Economic Literature, December, 1989.